The acceptance of each country as the other’s allies still baffles me at times but in some ways I do see how they were able to do so quickly. Both countries had strong nationalist traits in them and with that came the also the racial animosity between the two countries…


The implication of ordinary Japanese people in committing these acts were in ways both conscious and subconscious. Conscious in the sense of hearing rumors and believing them to be justifications of their actions from the masacres to the violence. During that time there were many censorships of the happenings and…


Think about the relationship between post-World War One capitalist crisis (elaborated by Young), transformations in colonial policy (examined in lecture 6), and new conflicts that emerged between colonial subjects and ordinary Japanese people as a result. …


Put yourself in the shoes of an Ainu person who lived through the extension of the boundaries of the old Tokugawa regime to include your ancestral homelands. How might your life change on an everyday level? …

Christina Liu

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